women welfare

Following are some of the programmes working for the welfare of women.

1. The Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY):

In the outcome of latest review and restructuring antipoverty programmes. This Yojana has been conceived as a comprehensive programme of self employment, through organisation of the rural poor into self-help groups and their capacity building. Govt. is providing several opportunities to women led SHGS and Swarojagar is to market their products without any middleman to urban consumers. The helps in improving their professional skills, promoting marketing technology and developing entrepreneurship amongst the rural entrepreneurs.

2. The Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY):

It was launched from April, 1999 with the twin objectives of creation of demand driven community village infrastructure and the generation of supplementary employment for the unemployed poor in the rural areas. Wage employment under the JGSY is extended to below poverty Line families: 30% of the employment opportunities are reserved for women under this Yojana.

3. The Indira Awas Yojana (IAY):

Its aims at providing assistance for construction of houses for people below the poverty lines in rural areas. Under this scheme, priority is extended to widows and unmarried women. It is stipulated that IAY houses are to be allotted in the name of women members of the household or alternatively, in the joint names of husband and wife.

4. The National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP):

It represents a significant step towards introducing a National Policy for Social Assistance benefits to households below the poverty line, with a major focus on women. The NSAP has 3 components namely- The National old age Pension Scheme, the National Family Benefit Scheme and the National Maternity Benefit Scheme.

The National Maternity, Benefit Scheme is exclusively aimed at assisting expectant mothers by providing them Rs.500/- each for the first two live births. Under the National Benefit Scheme, central assistance of Rs. 10,000/- is provided to the bereaved family in the case of death of the primary breadwinner due to natural or accidental, causes. Women are also beneficiaries under this scheme.

5. Under the Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP):

Women are trained so as to master enough skills in using and maintaining hand pumps for the supply of drinking water. Women are also represented in village level committees and are activity involved in selection of sites for hand pumps and other sources.

6. Rashtriya Mahilakosh (RMK):

It was constituted in 1993, by the Govt. to facilitate credit support or microfinance to poor women for income generating activities. RMK offers support to develop and stabilize Self Help Groups (SHGs) and to conduct awareness programmes among rural and urban women. SHGs and micro credit are the solutions to speed up the socio economic development of poor women.

7. Development of women and children in Rural Areas (DWCRA):

It was created in 1982 and initiated in the self employment category. The objective is to organize women in socioeconomic activity groups with the dual purpose of providing self-employment opportunities and social strength to them. This is to be achieved through technology services which may enable them to take up income generating activities.

8. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY):

This is to generate employment on productive works which are of substantial benefit to poor and contribute to the creation of rural infrastructure. National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) and Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) were merged into this new Jawahar Rozgar Yojana.

9. Training for Rural Youth and Self Employment (TRYSEM):

Under this programme action is being taken to provide technical skills and upgrades the traditional skills of rural youth and finances are given for self-employment. The Ninth plan (1997-2002) specifically stipulated identifying “Women component plans” for which at least 30% of funds should flow to women development schemes. There are women specific welfare schemes/programmes that receive funds under the annual budgetary allocations such as Mhila Samridhi Yojana, Batika Samridhi Yojana, Working women’s hostels etc.

Role of National and International Agencies in Child welfare service:

In 1952, the council for child welfare the first National Organisation was established under the societies Registration Act of 1860. Its prime aim was to mobilize voluntary activity in every state in-favour of all respects of children’s need. At present it has more than 25 affiliated branches in different states and union territories of India.

Indian Council for child welfare runs about 17 States and over 32,300 children are covered under this programme. It also runs 1550 crèches in 19 states. Besides this the council also organizes National Integration camps, gives National Awards to children for courage and meritorious conducts. Sponsors children for scholarship and organizes seminars. Besides this there are many other voluntary organisations in the national level which works for the welfare and development of children. Following are some of the renowned organisation in India.

(i) Balkanji Bari:

It was established in 1920. The main aim of the agency are to make children as happy as possible by telling them to develop themselves by supplementing their home and school activities. It also aims at providing relief to orphan and handicapped children, rescuing them from being exploited. It also runs nursery schools, child guidance clinics and a training institute for child welfare workers at Bombay. In all, it had about 1000 units all over the Country.

(ii) Children’s Aid Society:

The children’s aid society was founded in 1927 at Bombay. It is registered under the societies Registration Act of 1860 and also under Bombay Public trust Act 1958. The main aim of society is rehabilitation of children. It also provides specialized services such as child guidance, speech therapy, physiotherapy and medical & health services. The society has 11 centers in various parts of Bombay.

In Oct, 1974 the society started a project entitled “Bal Kalyan Nagar” in society’s Man khund campus. The project aims at providing services to the mentally retarded and destitute children. Children Aid Society was also established in Delhi.

(iii) Harijan Sevak Sangh:

It was setup in 1932, with headquarters at New Delhi. The aim of the sangh is to educate caste Hindus on the need of removal of untouchability. It runs Balwadies, Crèches and organizes Industrial cum-educational training centre for boys and girls. Since 1971 the Sangli is running more than 300. Balwadi-cum-nutrition centres in 19 states of the Country. It runs more than 100 creches.

(iv) Adamjati Sewak Sangh:

It has established Ashram Schools for Tribal Children. Balwadi nutrition programme. Creches/Day care and short stay centres in tribal areas in addition to socio­economic programmes for tribals.

(v) SOS (Save our Soul) Children’s village:

It provides innovative non-institutionalized child care. It has provisions for cottage type residential care with mixed provisions and provides near family atmosphere. In India there are more than 20 such villages. Each cottage has about 7 to 9 children of different ages and looked after by a female worker who is known as a House mother. some homes have been set up in Pune, Bhubaneswar, Guwahati, Bangalore, Madras (Chennai, Calcutta, Chandigarh etc.)

(vi) Other Voluntary Organizations:

Some other important voluntary organisations working in the field of child welfare are:

(a) Indian Red Cross Society

(b) The All India Women’s conference

(c) Bharatiya Grameen Mahila Sangha.

(d) Kasturba Gandhi National Memorial Trust.

(e) The Royal Common wealth society for the Blind (Bombay)

(f) Children’s Book Trust

(g) Child welfare workers Association (Bombay)

(h) Children’s film society (Bombay)

(i) Society for the care. Treatment and Training of Children in need of Special Care (Bombay)

(j) Society for the Rehabilitation of crippled children (Bombay).

10. The National Council of Women in India:

It was established in 1925 with the object to associate women of all communities in India for the promotion of the social, civic, moral and educational welfare of women and children in the country and to co-ordinate the work of national and local organisations in harmony with these purposes. The activities of the council include child welfare work, Village welfare work, social education, relief and rehabilitation and emergency relief. In 1955 the council had 12 branches having its headquarters in New Delhi.

11. All India Women’s Conference:

It was established in 1929 with the sole object of working for the welfare of women and children in every sphere. The activities of these organisations include running of maternity homes, nursery schools, milk centres and co-operative societies for women etc. In 1955 the conference had 36 main branches and 200 constituent branches all over India, with its headquarters in Delhi.

12. The Young Women Christian Association of India:

It was established in 1905 in order to run camps for leadership training of women. The local association’s work includes a large variety of activities for young woman and girls, including social welfare and educational activities. A number of hostels and holiday homes are run by them throughout the country. In 1955 the association had 49 branches and is affiliated to the world Y.W.C.A.

13. All India Women’s Education Fund Association:

Its aim is to promote education of women and girls in India while the federation of university women wants to stimulate the interest of university women in academic, cultural and civic life.

14. The Kasturaba Gandhi Memorial Trust:

It was established in 1945 with the object to conduct and promote the general welfare of the needy women and children in rural areas in India, to establish and maintain welfare institution for them to train women workers for rural areas and to promote the welfare of rural women and children in all possible ways.

The programme and activities include training of women workers (gram sevikas), running of village welfares centres, which include children homes, basic education centres, maternity homes, dispensaries and leprosy relief centres. The trust had 15 branches in 1955 to cater to the needs of all the states in India.

Besides, there are also small local organisations which provide dispensaries and maternity centres, homes for destitute children and shelter homes for women. They also organize programmes for education, creation and training in handicrafts.

Thus voluntary Organisations in the national level have been responsible for the organisation of child welfare programme of different categories, which are as follows:

(a) Preschool centers.

(b) Bolwadi

(c) Creches/Day care centers

(d) Bal Bhavan

(e) Holiday Homes

(f) Youth-Hostels

(g) Short stay homes

(h) Foster care services.

(i) Institution for destitute, orphan, neglected children.

(j) Non-institutional services like Foster care adoption-service, education, training & nutrition service for working and street children.

(k) Schools and maternal and child health centre, services for disabled children etc.

In-fact the agency in National level are doing pioneering work. The Govt. has enhanced its support to them by providing necessary funds. Their roles have not been only to promote participation of the community but also increase awareness of the community in regards to child care education.