Input output system

->Most modern computers use single bus arrangement for connecting I/O devices to CPU & Memory
-> The bus enables all the devices connected to it to exchange information
->Bus consists of 3 set of lines : Address, Data & Control Lines
->Processor places a particular address (unique for an I/O Dev.) on address lines
->Device which recognizes this address responds to the commands issued on the Control lines
-> Processor requests for either Read / Write
-> The data will be placed on Data lines

I/O INETRFACE:-

Input output system

-> It is a special hardware used to connect the I/O device to the bus , i.e, I/O interface.

->The I/O module has 3 section:-

(a)Address decoder:- It enables the device to recognize its address when this address appears on the address lines.

(b)Data register:- The data register holds the data being transferred to or from the processor.

->The status register contains information relevant to the operation of the I/O module.

* Both the data and status register are connected to the data bus.

Input output system

MODES OF DATA TRANSFER:-

1.Programmed I/O Mode:-

-> In programmed I/O mode data are exchanged between the processor and the I/O module.  When a processor is executing a program and encounters an instruction relating to I/O, it executes that instruction by issuing a command to that appropriate I/O module. With programmed I/O the I/O module will perform the requested action and then set the appropriate bit in the I/O status register .

-> The I/O module takes no further action to alert the processor (it doesn’t interrupt the processor).

-> The I/O commands issued by the processor to the I/O module

  • Test
  • Control
  • Read
  • Write

2.Memory Mapped I/O:-

->There is a single address space for memory location and I/O devices.( the address space is shared)

->With memory mapped I/O a single read line a single write line are needed on the bus. The bus may be equipped with memory read and write plus Input and output command lines.

->Now the command lines specifies whether the address refers to memory location or an I/O device.

->Most CPU uses memory mapped I/O.

-> Always CPU assigns address to memory some of memory space is stolen and assigned to I/O device.

->It deals with fewer address lines.

Input output system

3.Interrupt Driven I/O:-

->In this method the program issues an I/O command and than continues to execute untill it is interrupted by the I/O hardware to signal the end of I/O operation.

-> Here the program enters a wait loop in which it repeatedly checks the device status. During this process the processor is not performing any useful computation.

->There are many situations where tasks can be performed while waiting for an I/O device to be ready, to allow this the I/O device should alert the processor when it becomes ready. It can be done by sending a hardware signal called an interrupt.

->The routine executed in response to an interrupt request is called Interrupt Service Routine(ISR).

->The processor first completes execution of instruction then it loads the program counter(pc) with the address of 1st instruction of ISR.

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