Data communications refers to the exchange of data between a source and a receiver. Data communication is said to be local if communicating devices are in the same building or a similarly restricted geographical area.
The meanings of source and receiver are very simple. The device that transmits the data is known as source and the device that receives the transmitted data is known as receiver. Data communication aims at the transfer of data and maintenance of the data during the process but not the actual generation of the information at the source and receiver.
Datum mean the facts information statistics or the like derived by calculation or experimentation. The facts and information so gathered are processed in accordance with defined systems of procedure. Data can exist in a variety of forms such as numbers, text, bits and bytes. The Figure is an illustration of a simple data communication system.
A data communications system may collect data from remote locations through data transmission circuits, and then outputs processed results to remote locations. Figure provides a broader view of data communication networks. The different data communication techniques which are presently in widespread use evolved gradually either to improve the data communication techniques already existing or to replace the same with better options and features. Then, there are data communication jargons to contend with such as baud rate, modems, routers, LAN, WAN, TCP/IP, ISDN, during the selection of communication systems. Hence, it becomes necessary to review and understand these terms and gradual development of data communication methods.