Biogas Technology: Sources, Alternate Sources of Energy and Significance of Biogas Technology in Indian Economy!
Sources of Fuel in India and Effect of Burning:
For years in India the sources of fuel are wood, animal dung, dried leaves, scales, crop residues and other petroleum products, coal, etc. Burning of dung not only causes pollution but it also deprives the land from its replenishment because increased use of inorganic fertilizers for production has considerably effected the soil texture, pH, water holding capacity and put pressure on the support energy system.
The smoke generated by burning of fuel causes pollution as it adds pyrene-o-benzene a deadly cancerous substance to the atmosphere. An Indian women in village who is cooking food is more exposed to this chemical which is equivalent to 1 hour exposure of an Indian women to a pack of 20 cigarettes smoking daily. This reduces the life span of the lady under Indian condition and it is really severe in developing countries.
Burning of fuel and crop residues, leaves in fields also increases proportion of carbon dioxide than normal in the atmosphere. This disturbed the proportion of ozone, oxygen and nitrogen, etc.
Need For Alternate Sources of Energy:
India has an immense cattle wealth in the world. The output of manure if applied to farm judiciously can be used to boost up agriculture production. Dependence on coal, thermal, hydro-eclectic power for water and pumping etc. need extra expenses. In addition, the supply of coal to thermal plants determines the production of electricity/energy. Hydro-electric power is dependent on good and timely monsoon under Indian context. There are also huge losses of energy due transmission of electricity.
Under such circumstances with the increasing need of coal and electricity, the coal and petroleum products will not be lasting longer. Due to enormous pressure of population their excavation is going on at faster rate. ‘
The transportation and import of petroleum products by sea is also polluting the sea endangering the sea wealth and ecological population of animals. Under such circumstances it is necessary to find out
Solar and Biogas Energy:
The surface water pollution by open pits of manure, leaching and run off loses of essential nutrients makes to think of bio-gas technology. The solar energy is abundant in our country which is helpful in generating bio-mass in our field and is utilized by our cattle as feed and then it can be well utilized by bio-gas technology.
1. Slurry which is digested in bio-gas plants provides organic matter/humus which helps to maintain soil fertility.
2. Use of digested bio-mass helps to increase crop production by 10 to 15 per cent and brings saving in use of fertilizers thus saves foreign exchange in country.
3. When we utilize the energy of the bio-gas plant the non-toxic methane gas can be used for cooking, lights, running water pump, floor mill, so felling trees can be prevented to save forest.
4. Quality of environment can be improved.
5. Surface water pollution by mixing effluent with water resources can be prevented.
6. Health of rural people can be improved by preventing respiratory diseases like asthma and also cancerous growth as well as optic cataract and certain other skin diseases.
7. It is relatively cheaper and less dangerous to use than other resources of energy.
Design for Biogas Producing Plant :
(i) KVIC (Khadi and Village Industry Commission) design.
(ii) PRAD (Planning Research and Action Development) Luck-now design.
(iii) NREET (National Research on Environmental Energy Institute) Nagpur design.
(iv) lARI design.