DBMS important questions unit wise




1. What are the disadvantages of file processing system?
2. Explain the basic structure of a relational database with an example.
3. What do you mean by weak entity set?
4. Give example for one to one and one to many relationships.
5. What is the need of normalization?
6. Write a note on functional dependencies.
7. Who is a DBA? What are the responsibilities of a DBA?
8. What is a data model? List the types of data models used.
9. What are the components of storage manager?
10.What is a data dictionary?
11.What is an entity relationship model?
12. Define single valued and multi valued attributes.
13.What are stored, composite and derived attributes?
14.What is meant by the degree of relationship set?
15. Define weak and strong entity sets?
16. Explain the two type’s o f participation constraint.
17. Define the two levels of data independence.
18. Write down any two major responsibilities of a database administrator.
19. Define irreducible sets of dependencies.
20. Define the normal forms.


1. With a neat diagram, explain the structure of a DBMS.
2. What is data integrity? Explain the types of integrity constraints.
3. Explain 1NF, 2NF, 3NF and BCNF with suitable example.
4. What are the pitfalls in relational database design? With a suitable example, explain the role of functional dependency in the process of normalization.
5. Construct an E-R diagram for a car-insurance company whose customers own one or more cars each. Each car has associated with it zero to any number of recorded accidents. State any assumptions you make.
6. What is aggregation in an ER model? Develop an ER diagram using aggregation that
captures the following information : Employees work for projects. An employee working for a particular project uses various machinery. A unnecessary attributes. State any options you make. Also discuss about the ER diagram you have designed.
7. With relevant examples discuss the various operations in Relational Algebras.
8. Define a functional dependency. List and discuss the six inference rules for functional
dependencies. Give relevant examples.
9. Explain the three different groups of data models with examples.
10. Discuss Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form, and explain why 5NF?




1. List the string operations supported by SQL?
2. List the set operations of SQL?
3. What are aggregate functions? And list the aggregate functions supported by SQL?
4. What is the use of group by clause?
5. What is the use of sub queries?
6. What is view in SQL? How is it defined?
7. Write a SQL statement to find the names and loan numbers of all customers who have a loan at Chennai branch.
8. Consider the following relation :
EMP (ENO, NAME, DATE_OF_BIRTH, SEX, DATE_OF_JOINING, BASIC_PAY, DEPT) Develop an SQL query that will find and display the average BASIC_PAY in each DEPT.
9. What is the use of with clause in SQL?
10. List the table modification commands in SQL?
11. What is transaction?
12. List the SQL domain Types?
13. Describe a circumstance in which you would choose to use Embedded SQL rather than using SQL alone.
14. What are the four broad categories of constraints?
15. What is meant by Cost Estimation?
16. List the SQL statements used for transaction control.
17. With an example explain referential integrity.
18. What is domain integrity? Give example.
19. List SQL Data types.
20. Mention SQL Database Objects.


1. What is a view? How can it be created? Explain with an example.
2. Discuss in detail the operators SELECT, PROJECT, UNION with suitable examples.
3. Explain static and dynamic SQL in detail.
4. Diagrammatically illustrate and discuss the steps involved in processing a query.
5. Give briefly about Query evaluations cost & Selection operation
6. How does a DBMS represent a relational query evaluation plan?
7. Since indices speed query processing, why might they not be kept on several search keys? List as many reasons as possible.
8. Consider the database given by the following schemes.
Customer (Cust_No, Sales_ Person_No ,City)
Sales_ Person(Sales_ Person_No ,Sales_ Person_Name, Common_Prec,Year_of_Hire)
Give an expression in SQL for each of the following queries:
1)Display the list of all customers by Cust_No with the city in which each is located.
Select Cust No, city from Customer
2)List the names of the sales persons who have accounts in Delhi.
Select Sales_Person_Name from Sales_Person_Name where( select * from customer   where city = delhi)
9. Write short notes on the following:
Data Manipulation Language (DML), Data Definition Language (DDL)
Transaction Control Statements (TCS),Data Control Language (DCL)
10. Consider the employee database , where the primary keys are Underlined.
Give an expression in the relational algebra for each request.
1) Find the names of all employees who work for First Bank Corporation.
2) Find the names, street addresses and cities of residence of all employees who work for First Bank Corporation and earn more than 200000 per annum.
3) Find the names of all employees in this database who live in the same city as the company for which they work.
4) Find the names of all employees who earn more than every employees of small Bank Corporation.




1. What do you mean by a transaction?
2. Define the term ACID properties.
3. What are the three kinds of intent locks?
4. What are two pitfalls (problems) of lock-based protocols?
5. What is recovery management component?
6. When is a transaction rolled back?
7. What are the states of transaction?
8. What is a shadow copy scheme?
9. Give the reasons for allowing concurrency?
10. What is average response time?
11. What are the different modes of lock?
12. Define deadlock?
13. Define upgrade and downgrade?
14. What is a database graph?
15. What are the two methods for dealing deadlock problem?
16. What is a recovery scheme?
17. What are the two types of errors?
18. Explain current page table and shadow page table.
19. What are the drawbacks of shadow-paging technique?
20. What is meant by isolation level?


1. Describe about testing of Serializability.
2. Explain the deferred and immediate modification versions of the log based recovery scheme.
3. What are different types of schedules are acceptable for recoverability.
4. Discuss on strict, two-phase locking protocol and time stamp-based protocol.
5. Explain Time stamp-Based Concurrency Control protocol and the modifications
implemented in it.
6. Describe shadow paging recovery techniques.
7. How can you implement atomicity in transactions? Explain.
8. Describe the concept of serializability with suitable example.
9. How concurrency is performed? Explain the protocol that is used to maintain the
concurrency concept.




1. What is an index?
2. What is called remapping of bad sectors?
3. What is a block and a block number?
4. What is called mirroring?
5. What is called bit and block -level striping?
6. What are the two main goals of parallelism?
7. What are the factors to be taken into account when choosing a RAID level?
8. What are the ways in which the variable-length records arise in database systems?
9. What is known as heap, sequential and hashing file organization?
10. What are the techniques to be evaluated for both ordered indexing and hashing?
11. Describe flash memory.
12. List out the physical storage media.
13. How does B-tree differ from a B+ – tree? Why is a B+ – tree usually preferred as an access structure to a data file?
14. What are the types of transparencies that a distributed database must support? Why?
15. Give the measures of the quality of a disk.
16. What are the two types of ordered indices?
17. What are structured data types? What are collection types in particular?
18. State the advantages of distributed systems.
19. What is Data Warehousing?
20. What is data mining?


1. What is RAID? Explain in detail.
2. Describe static hashing and dynamic hashing.
3. Describe the different types of file organization? Explain using a sketch of each of them with their advantages and disadvantages.
4. Briefly write the overall process of data ware housing.
5. Illustrate the issues to implement distributed databases.
6. Describe the structure of B+ tree and give the algorithm for search in the B+ tree with example.
7. Explain why allocations of records to blocks affect database system performance significantly.
8. What are the types of Knowledge discovered data mining? Explain with suitable example.
9. Briefly write the overall process of Multidimensional and Parallel databases.
10. Describe the structure of multimedia databases.
11. Explain the architecture of mobile and web database with neat sketch.




1. Define mobile database with an example.
2. List the markup languages which are suitable for web databases.
3. Write two examples of multimedia databases and multimedia structure.
4. Define spatial database.
5. Differentiate distributed database and normal database.
6. How transaction is performed in Object oriented database?
7. What is versioning in terms of object oriented database?
8. Specify the advantages of Data warehousing.
9. How spatial databases are more helpful than active database?
10. What is deductive database?
11. Briefly explain about applications of data warehousing.
12. Write short notes on multimedia query languages.
13. What is knowledge? What are its types?
14. Define Database Security.
15. Illustrate about Data Classification.
16. Define Threats and risks.
17. How Database access Control.
18. Give types of Privileges.
19. Define Cryptography.
20. What is the difference between XML schema and XML DTD?


1. Explain about web database.
2. Give XML representation of bank management system and also explain about Document Type Definition and XML schema.
3. Explain about the following:
i. Deductive DB
ii. Spatial DB
4. Briefly discuss client/server model with suitable example.
5. Compare and contrast between mobile databases and internet databases.
6. Explain how to identify active and deductive databases with an example.
7. Write detail note data mining with its various techniques.
8. Explain the different approaches used for object oriented databases.
9. Discuss in detail about structure and various operation of object oriented query language.
10. Explain about the decision trees in the process of data mining.
11. Explain the object oriented database and its approaches.
12. Discuss the issues and steps involved in building a data warehouse. How the concept of
relational view is related to data warehouse and data marts?